The term ecology refers to all the organisms in a given place in interaction with their nonliving environment (Forman, 1995: 19; Forman & Godron, 1986: 9)(2,3). Landscape studies suggest that there is a limit in the variety of habitats available for organisms (Forman, 1995: 21)(2).
Ecological context is much more complex than an organism and its accurate indicators are rarely available (Freedman et al., 1995: 69)(4).
Structure, metabolism and biogeochemistry of ecosystems (Es) are exceedingly complex (Likens, 1995: 381)(8) and Es response to environmental variability is a complex product of coevolution.
Simple components of an E are considered to be deterministic in their cause and effect relationships. However, the behavior of Es is affected by sources of variation beyond our ability to understand their
complexity (Moir & Mowrer, 1995: 240)(9). Understanding of Es is weak and prediction of cause-effect relationship in Es is very imprecise (Woodley & Forbes, 1995: 55)(10).
Terms relative to the protection of Es, like preservation, conservation, restoration, mitigation, and sustainability, which are becoming popularized, are often confused (Likens, 1995: 13)(8). The definition of "sustain" is not simple although efforts have been made to clarify the word by the context in which it is used (Moir & Mowrer, 1995: 240)(9). Sustainability of Es is complex since many properties of Es are still abstract (Gauthier & Patino, 1995: 540)(5).
In the management of Es, taxonomic units may be arbitrary and Es boundaries are usually highly subjective: frequently they lack adequate definition and/or depend on context. Institutional boundaries differ from ecological ones and different management agencies vary in mandate, policies, responsibilities or jurisdictions generating the need of joint decision making (Anderson, 1995: 46; Woodley & Forbes, 1995: 54-55)(1, 10) Managing Es in the sense of full control is not possible. The complexity of natural Es defies the establishment of an absolute experimental control (Likens, 1985: 382; Woodley & Forbes, 1995:55)(7, 10).
1. ANDERSON,J G T(1995) «Ecosystem Ecology and Conservation Biology: A Critique», In: T B Herman et al.(Eds)(1995) pp. 45-49.
2. FORMAN, R T & M GODRON(1986) Landscape Ecology, New York, Wiley.
3. FORMAN, R T T(1995) Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions, Cambridge, CUP.
4. FREEDMAN,B et al.(1995) «Ecological Monitoring and Research in Greater Ecological Reserves», In: T B Herman et al.(Eds)(1995) pp. 68-80.
5. GAUTHIER,D A & L PATINO(1995) «Protected Area Planning in Fragmented Data Poor Regions», In: T B Herman et al.(Eds)(1995) pp. 537-547.
6. HERMAN, T B et al.(Eds)(1995) Ecosystem Monitoring and Protected Areas, Wolfville, SAMPAA.
7. LIKENS G E(1985) «An Experimental Approach For the Study of Ecosystems», Jour. of Ecol.73, 381-396.
8. LIKENS,G E(1995) «Sustainable Ecological Research and the Protection of Ecosystems», In: T B Herman et al.(Eds)(1995), pp. 13-21.
9. MOIR,W H & H T MOWRER(1995), «Unsustainability», For.Ecol.and Mgment.73, 239-248.
10. WOODLEY,S & G FORBES(1995) «Ecosystem Management and Protected Areas: Principles, Problems and Practices», In: T B Herman et al.(Eds)(1995), pp. 50-58.
The future of low carbon energy
Royal Geographic Society
Putting It Together
Energy and Economic Myths, by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen
Storage, Emergy and Transformity
Resilience, Flexibility, and Adaptative Management
In anthropology [ecology] the centre stage is [was] for people [Nature] (39). Some [people] societies pay more attention to knowledge [beliefs] than to beliefs [knowledge], and more attention to protected [recreational] areas than to recreational [protected] areas (40)
2. Protected Areas
6. Conservation Ecology
10. Traditional Ecological Knowledge Concepts and Cases
12. Die off
Ecology and Society (1)
Ecosystems and Immune Systems: Hierarchical Response Provides Resilience against Invasions
Advocacy, Science, Policy, and Life in the Real World
Published by the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 5113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: email@example.com, Web: www.uni-bonn.de/ihdp The Working Papers are an IHDP publications series to draw attention to emerging issues in the field of Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. The Papers represent preliminary material circulated to stimulate discussion and comments. These represents the view(s) of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IHDP nor its sponsors ICSU and ISSC.
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Wild Singapore News
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As the population ages, Americans become more and more dependent on their prescription medications. Now scientists are beginning to wonder: What happens when all those pharmaceuticals get flushed into the nation's rivers -- and into our drinking water?
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Full texts by recognized religious scholars
Communications Director, Energy & Climate
Sent to Emilia Mª Trevisi Foundation by Ricardo Luis Plaul, Argentina.