sábado, 28 de julio de 2012



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1. The 1980s witnessed the introduction and widespread use of personal computers  at all levels of schooling.  During the decade the number of computers used in U.S.  elementary and secondary schools increased from under 100,000 to over 2.5 million.  A majority of students now use computers and COMPUTER SOFTWARE sometime during the school year--either to learn about computers or as a tool for learning other subjects.  By the end of the decade, the typical school had 1 computer per 20 students, a ratio that computer educators feel is still not high enough to affect classroom learning as much as books and classroom conversation do.


Witnessed: dar testimonio / widespread: difundido / schooling: enseñanza / increased: aumentar / from... to: desde...hasta / sometime: alguna vez, en algún momento / ratio: promedio / classroom learning: aprendizaje áulico / do: reemplaza a affect, afectar.

2. Some critics see computer education as merely the latest in a series of unsuccessful attempts to revolutionize education through the use of audio- and visually-oriented nonprint media. For example, motion pictures, broadcast television,  audio recorders, and videotapes were all initially heralded for their instructional potential, but each of these ultimately became minor classroom tools alongside conventional methods.


Merely: meramente / latest: la última / unsuccessful: sin éxito / through: por medio de / broadcast: transmisión / heralded: estimados / tools: herramientas / alongside: en comparación con .

3. Supporters believe, however, that computers are a much more powerful learning medium than the others that preceded it. They cite the essential interactive nature of using computers programmed to provoke decision making and manipulations of visual environments.  Also, each computer is controlled by one student or pair of students.  Learning tasks can become more individualized, enabling each student to receive immediate feedback.  Some experts say that having students work collaboratively on computers leads to greater initiative and more autonomous learning.


Supporters: los que están a favor / learning medium: recurso de aprendizaje / cite: nombrar / decision making: toma de decisiones / environments: entornos / tasks: tareas / enabling: autorizar / feedback: retroalimentación /  having students work: hacer trabajar a los estudiantes / leads: conducir .

4. Computers in elementary and secondary schools are used in two major contexts.  The first is computer-education instruction:  how to use WORD PROCESSING programs; how to program computers in languages such as BASIC, PASCAL, and LOGO ;  and how to use other computer applications such as database programs.and spread-sheets.  One-half of computer use by secondary students and one-third of the use of elementary students is of this kind.  From 1985 to 1989, keyboarding and word-processing instruction increased rapidly, but computer-programming instruction declined, as schools sought to involve all students in computer education, not just the few excited by programming.


Spread-sheets: planillas de cálculo / use: sust.,  uso / kind: tipo, forma / declined: declinar / sought: pasado de seek, buscar / few: pocos / excited: entusiasmados

Personal Computers


1. A personal computer is a computer that is based on a MICROPROCESSOR, a small SEMICONDUCTOR chip that performs the operations of a CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU).  The general class of microcomputers comprises computers based on microprocessors. The personal computer is a microcomputer.
Personal computers are single-user machines, whereas larger computers generally have multiple users.  The first generation of personal computers were distinguishable from MINICOMPUTERS  by a small memory capacity, typically in the 16-64 kilobyte range (a kilobyte, or K, is 1,024 BYTES). Models available from the mid-1980s, however, had memories in the megabyte to gigabyte range (a megabyte, or M, is 1,024K, and a gigabyte is 1,024M);  this increased memory capacity equaled and even surpassed the power of earlier mini-computers.


Comprises: comprender, abarcar / single-user: usuario único / whereas: en cambio, mientras que / range: rango / available: disponibles / mid-1980s: mediados de los '80 / however: sin embargo / surpassed: sobrepasar / earlier: (las) primeras

2. Basic Structure
A computer system consists of three parts:  the central processing unit (CPU), INPUT-OUTPUT DEVICES, and memory.  A CPU performs arithmetic and logic operations.  The microprocessors of personal computers process data in 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit chunks (see BIT, COMPUTER).
The most common input-output devices are keyboards and cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays, which can provide both graphic and text modes.  Other input-output devices include modems, for interacting over the telephone;  the mouse, joystick, and light pen, for making tactile input;  and printers, for producing hard, or permanent, output.


Performs: ejecutar, llevar a cabo / devices: instrumentos / both: ambos /
tactile inputs: entradas dactilográficas.

3. Primary memory refers to memory that is directly accessible by the CPU.  Many older CPUs have primary memories with 64-kilobyte capacities.  Newer processors can handle 1 megabyte or more.  Personal computers are often packaged with less primary memory than the CPU can handle.  A wide range of add-on memory devices, have, therefore, been made available.


Older: más viejos / newer: más nuevos / handle: manejar / packaged: (en este caso) vendidas / add-on memory: que agregan memoria.

4. Secondary memory refers to external memory required for storing data that will not fit into the computer's primary memory. Secondary-memory media typically used in personal computers include one or more magnetic floppy disks, each of which can store up to about 1.4 million characters of text information, and internally mounted hard disks that can store about 20 million or more characters each. (Continued)


Storing: almacenar / fit: caber .



1. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of an artificial mechanism to exhibit intelligent behavior.  Artificial intelligence is also the name of the field in which artificial mechanisms that exhibit intelligence are developed and studied. The term invites philosophical speculation about what constitutes the mind or intelligence.  Such questions can be considered separately, however, as the endeavor to construct and understand increasingly sophisticated mechanisms remains.


Behavior conducta / developed: desarrollar / term: término /  mind: mente /  endeavor: esfuerzo / increasingly: que aumentan / remains: permanecer.

2. While research in all aspects of AI is vigorous, there is concern that both the progress and expectations of AI have been overstated.  AI programs are primitive when compared to the kinds of intuitive reasoning and induction of which the human brain is capable.  AI has shown great promise in the area of EXPERT SYSTEMS, or knowledge-based expert programs, which, although powerful when answering questions within a specific domain, are nevertheless incapable of any type of adaptable, or truly intelligent, reasoning.


While: mientras / research: investigación / concern: acuerdo / overstated: sobreestimado / kinds: tipos, clases / reasoning: razonamiento / brain: cerebro / capable: capaz / shown: mostrar / knowledge-based: basados en el conocimiento / although: aunque / within: dentro de / nevertheless: sin embargo.

3. Examples of artificially intelligent systems include computer programs that perform medical diagnoses, legal reasoning, speech understanding, vision interpretation, natural-language processing, problem solving, and learning. Most of these systems are far from being perfected.  Most have proved valuable, however, either as research vehicles or in specific, practical applications. (Continued)


Speech: habla / solving: resolución /  far from: lejos de / either...or: o...o / DICTIONARY: WORD REFERENCE

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